- Diamond Sorting: After the rough diamonds are mined, they are sorted based on their shape, size, and quality. This is done by trained professionals who have experience in identifying diamonds that are suitable for cutting and polishing.
- Diamond Planning: In this step, the rough diamond is analyzed to determine the best way to cut and polish it to maximize its value. The planning process takes into consideration the size, shape, clarity, and color of the diamond.
- Diamond Cleaving or Sawing: Once the diamond is planned, it is cut using either a diamond saw or a laser. The process of cleaving is done by making a small incision on the rough diamond using a special tool, and then hitting it with a hammer to separate it into two pieces. Sawing, on the other hand, involves using a diamond-coated saw to cut the diamond.
- Diamond Bruting: In this step, the diamond is rounded into a cone shape using a spinning diamond-tipped tool. This process is known as bruting or girdling, and it is used to create a flat surface, called a girdle, around the diamond.
- Diamond Polishing: The diamond is then polished using a series of finer and finer diamond grits until it achieves its desired level of brilliance and shine. Polishing is done on a rotating wheel that has been coated with diamond dust.
- Diamond Grading: Finally, the polished diamond is graded by a professional gemologist using the 4 Cs criteria (carat weight, cut, clarity, and color) to determine its quality and value.
- Certification: Once the diamond is graded, it can be sent to a reputable third-party certification agency, such as the Gemological Institute of America (GIA), for further authentication and certification.
After these steps are completed, the loose diamond is ready to be set into jewelry or sold as a loose stone.